МАМОНТ С ВОСТОЧНОЙ СИБИРИ
МОРЕ ЛАПТЕВЫХ, СЕВЕРНЫЙ ЛЕДОВИТЫЙ ОКЕАН
Мамонты – это крупные стадные животные, принадлежащие к семейству слоновых. Представители одной из их разновидностей, именуемой шерстистым мамонтом (mammuthus primigenius), заселяли северные регионы Европы, Азии и Северной Америки предположительно в промежутке от 300 до 10 тыс. лет назад. При благоприятных климатических условиях они не покидали территории Канады и Сибири, а в суровые времена пересекали границы современного Китая и США, попадали в Центральную Европу и даже в Испанию и Мексику. В ту эпоху Сибирь населяло и множество других необычных животных, которых палеонтологи объединили в категорию, называемую «мамонтовой фауной». В нее, кроме мамонта, входят такие животные, как шерстистый носорог, первобытные бизон, лошадь, тур и т.д.
Многие ошибочно считают, что шерстистые мамонты – это прародители современных слонов. На самом деле оба вида просто имеют общего предка, а, следовательно, и близкую родственную связь.
Мамонт – это гигантское животное, высота которого в холке достигала около 3,5-4,5 метров при среднем весе в 5,5 тонн, а максимальном – до 8 тонн! Вес бивней у некоторых особей достигал 135 кг каждый при длине 3,5 - 4,5 метра. Длина шерстяного покрова, состоящего из жестких волос и густого мягкого подшерстка, достигала более метра. Толщина кожи мамонта составляла почти 2 см. 10-сантиметровый слой подкожного жира вместе с шерстью служили гигантам надежной защитой от холода.
Find address: 72.868738, 140.796730
The length of the skeleton average-5 m,
weight 650 kg.
Tusks length-3 m,
weight of each -65 kg,
diameter -16 cm
DESCRIPTION OF MAMMOTH
A joint expedition of the tribal community " Yukagir"and "TRIAS GEO" in August-September 2001. was discovered the skeleton of a mammoth in the exposed after a landslide coastal slope of the river San-Yuryakh, in the estuarine portion of it, at the confluence of the rivers in the sea, in Omulyah Guba. Of all known finds of mammoth skeletons, this finding can be considered the most northerly on the mainland, by position.
In the fresh coastal sediments, with a capacity of 30-40m, at a depth of 6 m from the surface, in the frozen rocks, the ribs of the left side of the chest, the humerus and most of the left Tusk were exposed. During the field season with the excavation of the thawed soil is able to retrieve the bones of the skeleton of a mammoth and tusks. The completeness of the skeleton is more than 95%.
The skull of the skeleton has been preserved by more than 80%, and the lower jaw has been extracted.
The bones of the skeleton are dense, not weathered, good preservation, dark beige color, which may indicate that the corpse of the deceased animal was quickly buried under sediments, and the anatomical order in the arrangement of the bones indicates that they were not transferred by river flows, and not reburied, and remained at the burial site until the opening of the coastal wall.
The large size of tusks, bones of limbs, vertebrae, lower jaw, clear sculpturing them in the places of attachment of muscular tendons indicate that the skeleton found belonged to the male mammoth. With regard to the individual age of the animal, further study of the crowns of the molars of the lower jaw and completely adherent to the epiphysis of the long bones of the extremities indicate a very Mature age, not less than 45-50 years.
The articular heads of the lower jaw, especially the left one, with signs of a strong lifetime traumatic change in the cartilage of the skin, which is formed on the bones when they are damaged by arthrosis. It is likely that the animal received strong blows to the lower jaw during the "tournament battles" for the possession of the female.
In the lower jaw there are large crowns of the molars of the third shift of the M3 molars, completely affected by Erasure.
The length of the crown with the sign of approximation, as the teeth crowns are in the alveolus: right-235 mm, left-250 mm. width of the crowns: right -88 mm, left-93 mm, the number of plates: in the right and left about 18. Average length (thickness) of the plate is calculated based on the right of the crown of the tooth and is equal to 12.9 mm. the Plates are thin and close fitting.
In some places, in the middle part of the plates there are small rounded loci (extensions), indicating the presence of the branch-leaf component in the stern.Enamel thickness is not more than 1 mm. the Morphology of teeth crowns is typical for woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach.
Large long bones of the limbs indicate a high individual, at least 4-4. 5 m at the withers
The presence of a long symphyseal process in the place of fusion of the lower mandibular branches, which is mostly not expressed, or slightly expressed in late Pleistocene mammoths, is remarkable. Simpithy process is very massive and long characteristic of the lower jaw Archidiskodon elephants (South), and the archaic shape of an elephant kind, mammoths (trogonterievy elephant).
The functional value of the symphysis process is associated with additional strengthening of the lower lip muscles, which are long and mobile enough to direct the branch feed into the mouth.
The presence of such an archaic morphological detail on the lower jaw of the found mammoth skeleton may indicate either an older geological age than the late Pleistocene, or a significantly overgrown mosaic landscapes of interglacial time. It is possible that the geological age of this finding is not less than 50 thousand years. But work with bones in the process of mounting the skeleton and dusting can lead to significant rejuvenation of the results of Dating in the analysis.
A couple relatives of the tusks were extracted from the layer exposure without damage. They did not retain their natural white color and were colored with soil solutions and were not subjected to long time solar insolation on the day surface. All this once again proves that posthumously the corpse of the animal was almost instantly buried by soil or river sediments.
Tusks are smoothly bent, their ends are directed inside (i.e. they form a steep spiral). At the end of their sites there are no working areas of Erasure, which may indicate the animal's habitation in rather mild climatic conditions (interglacial), and in mosaic (sometimes overgrown) landscapes.
Ie it was not the harsh conditions of the open steppe spaces, when in winter the blinds, films winter snow formed a thick crust crust in the wind, which would have forced the animal to break and clear the stern section, but rather was tolerable, mild climate with not dense snow cover, which the animal had to use the tusks to forage from under the snow.
In the Assembly of the axial skeleton (spine) there are no some native vertebrae and replaced by suitable size. The vertebrae are well preserved, the body of their dense non-weathered. A significant part of the sternum is preserved.
The ribs of the mammoth skeleton are perfectly preserved. On the right side of the skeleton, on the last right ribs clearly visible pathological formation of corns in the places of their fractures. Therefore, it can also confirm that a large, motherly male has repeatedly participated in tournament battles with rivals.
Shoulder blades: right and left fully intact. Dimensions: right – 697 on 540мм, left - 772 on 555мм. Strong sculpturesqueness the ridges of the blades, in places of attachment of tendons, also indicate the considerable age of the animal. The humerus is perfectly preserved. Right-958mm, left-943mm.
The bones of the forearm are completely intact. Elbow: right – 849мм, left-859мм, radius: right-758мм, left-759мм.
The pelvis and the sacrum safely. The articular abalone surfaces are tightly adjacent to the articular surfaces of the sacrum, which confirms the native completeness of the bones. A large opening of the pelvis is round in shape, indicating the correct determination of the sex of the animal by the morphology of the long bones of the limbs as a male. Pelvic morphology also confirms that the skeleton belonged to the male mammoth.
Femur: the left is not the native skeleton and is replaced by a suitable size. Right excellent preservation. Its length 1090мм. Patellas are not native. The right tibia bone condition, full length 604мм. Right one replaced a similar size of the tibia of the West-Siberian region.
The feet are reconstructed with the addition of non-native bones and models. Native large phalanges 1 and 2 of the series.
Conclusions: in 2002 the remains of the mammoth skeleton were transported to Moscow, and within 3 years were mounted on metal structures, by TRIAS GEO specialists.
The large size of the bones are well collected in the skeleton, the presence of pathological changes in the bones of the lifetime, clearly expressed age and systematic morphology of the skeleton will undoubtedly attract the attention of researchers and Museum visitors.
Well-preserved in a large number of bones of the skeleton, in General, make this discovery very valuable in the scientific and exhibition aspects.